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故事開始
OUR STORY BEGINNING

【地理】國境與邊界-第2篇:動物的空路旅行(二)
【Geography】The Borders - Chapter 2: Animals’ Air Travel Ⅱ

在沒有準備行李的狀況下,2千多公里旅行中牠們該如何度過呢?

 

9月中旬

 

黑面琵鷺的繁殖地,南北韓和渤海灣或大陸北方一帶的無人島上,冷冷北風開始吹起,不久後這裡將是一片冰天雪地,沒有食物,只有飛到溫暖的南方,才有食物可以生存。

北風愈颳愈強大,牠們準備開始南飛,就是啟程時候了。

黑面琵鷺的領頭一聲長鳴,其他夥伴們和第一次過冬飛行的小黑面也要一起飛行,一趟候鳥的遷徙之旅即將開始,這次旅途需要經過17-20天,長達2000多公里或更長的飛行旅程即將開始 ,牠們喜歡在星夜中飛行,因為比較安全。

 

P.S. 有一隻黑面琵鷺界的獵豹……編號是T37,牠是從台灣標記放飛 ,從南北韓飛到台南的七股只花了6 天。

 

牠們會形成人字形隊伍前進

 

在強風中領頭鳥需要特別強壯,牠擁有強大的力氣和毅力及超強的記憶,帶頭飛行的牠,是為了讓其他夥伴可以減少了阻力和體力上的耗損。

由於牠受到的阻力最大,也最耗體力,當牠飛累時,會放緩速度,排到隊伍後方,其他的強壯夥伴暫時頂替牠的位置,牠可以獲得短暫的喘息,團隊進行中沒有任何的語言,卻有著無比的默契。

一路上可能遇到狀況很多,有時好幾天沒有適合地點可以落腳休息或風雨中靠著毅力連續飛行;也會目睹其他夥伴闖入捕鳥網的景象;飛行中人類的建築更是潛藏的危機,這些狀況對牠們來說都是一趟充滿挑戰又未知的旅途。

這趟2000多公里的旅途,如何順利帶領大家來到這個冬天的家,靠著牠的帶領完成這一趟不可思議的生存之旅。  

 

 

P.S. 鸕鷀也是從北方飛來候鳥,飛翔時隊形,有時候出現「人」或「V」形狀,或是一直線。

P.S. Cormorants are also a kind of bird migration from the north when flying, the team sometimes appears Λ or V shape, or a straight line.

 

 

How do they fly over 2 thousand kilometers without any luggage?

 

Mid-September

 

The breeding places of black-faced Spoonbills are in uninhabited islands between Korean Peninsula and the Bohai Sea or northern areas. These places will be iced and snow while the cold of the north wind blows. Not any food in there so they just fly to warm southern areas for food and survival.
It's time to set off to fly to the south when the north wind is getting stronger.
The leader of black-faced Spoonbills will sound a long bird call to the flock, moreover, the little black-faced ones also fly together which is their first time to spend the winter. A journey of Migratory birds is about to start which will spend 17~20 days and over 2 thousand kilometers distance or more fly. They like to fly at stars night due to safer.

 

PS. A black-faced Spoonbill which is like a cheetah is number T37, and he is released into the wild from Taiwan which flew to Qigu, Tainan just for 6 days from Korean Peninsula.

 

Black-faced Spoonbills fly forward like a V shape.

 

The leader bird needs stronger which has the best of strength and perseverance also has the best memory. The bird takes the lead to fly which can let other partners reduce the air resistance and the energy cost.

The leading bird suffers the most resistance and consumes the most energy, hence when the leader has tired that will slow down the speed and back to behind the team. Another stronger bird will temporarily replace it. The leading bird has a short rest. This team of the flock has an extremely silent understanding of this journey.

It will happen in many situations along the way that sometimes there aren't suitable rest places for several days or must consecutive flying with perseverance in rainy; sometimes watched other partners fell into the bird trapping net; even more the human buildings are a potential crisis to them during the flying journey. Those situations are full of challenges and unknowns on this journey.

This over 2 thousand kilometers travel how to succeed to lead this flock to the home of the winter rely on the leader to complete this incredible survival journey.

 

 

圖片摘自:未來少年雜誌 2011.01月號

Picture is taken from the magazine of Global Kids Junior Monthly in Jan 2011.

 


黑面琵鷺的飛行路線:

 

遷徙路線1:大陸東北→渤海→黃海→台灣(金門/雲林/嘉義/台南/高屏) →香港→澳門→越南→柬埔寨→泰國→菲律賓。

遷徙路線2:北韓→南韓的濟州島→日本福岡縣和白濕地及琉球群島→台灣的淡水→宜蘭。

(當中台灣為世界最大度冬區。其中,臺灣占全世界數量約六成(迄2020年),而臺南地區原以曾文溪口總數佔臺灣的9成,促使當地設有台江國家公園等保護區。

 

 

【行程】

 

​[日本跳島之旅

​[台南百年文化歷史之旅

​[南部1日遊

​[金門戰地文化之旅

​[吳哥窟5日

​[泰北11日

​[泰國小島5日

 

10月中左右開始

 

陸陸續續黑面琵鷺就會分批降落在台灣西南沿海,全球重要的棲地中,台南佔全台66%。

主要集中於西岸:

台南七股、四草地區。其次為嘉義布袋和鰲鼓濕地;高雄茄萣、永安濕地及高屏溪口。金門則集中在慈湖與陵水湖。雲林在成龍、椬梧濕地。

少部分淡水和東岸宜蘭縣主要集中於竹安。

 

The flying routes of black-faced Spoonbills:

 

The migration route 1:Northeast of China → Bohai Sea → Yellow Sea → Taiwan (Kinmen/ Yunlin/ Chiayi/ Tainan/ Kaohsiung/ Pingtung) → Hong Kong → Macau → Vietnam → Philippines → Cambodia → Thailand 

The migration route 2:North Korea → Jeju Island of South Korea → Wajiro Tidal Flats of Fukuoka Prefecture of Japan and Ryukyu Islands → Tamsui and Yilan of Taiwan

Taiwan is the largest overwinter area in the world. Among them, there are about 60% of the world's amount in Taiwan. (Until 2020.) There are 90% of Taiwan's amount based in Zengwen Estuary of Tainan areas at the beginning so that the local had made to establish the Taijiang National Park and other protected areas.

 

【Tour Item】

 

​[Island hopping tour in Japan

​[Century culture history tour in Tainan Taiwan

​[1 Day tour in southern Taiwan

​[Culture of the battle are tour in Kinmen Taiwan

​[Angkor Wat tour 5 Days

​[Northern Thailand 11 Days

​[The Thailand's island 5 Days

 

Start around mid-October.

 

Flocks of Black-faced Spoonbills will arrive one after another at the southwest coast of Taiwan. There is 66% of Taiwan's amount in Tainan among the most important habitats in the world.
The major cluster is in the western part of Taiwan:
Qigu, Sicao areas of Tainan. Secondly are in the Aogu wetland and Budai wetland of Chiayi; Qieding District Kaohsiung, Yongan wetland and Gaoping River Estuary. The clusters are at Ci Lake, Lingshui Lake in Kinmen. ChengLong wetlands and Yiwu wetland in Yunlin.
A few flocks are major clusters at Zhuan of the east part of Yilan.

 

 

圖 Picture / Photo

 

小常識

 

黑面琵鷺小檔案:

 

全長:74~85公分

高:50~60公分

體重:約 1-2公斤

腳趾:四趾(半蹼)

保護狀況:國際自然保護聯盟(IUCN)公告之瀕危(EN)動物

 

黑面琵鷺的生長狀態:

 

剛出生的小黑面琵鷺嘴喙是粉紅色的,和其他鳥類直接餵食小魚、小蝦不同,黑面琵鷺會先將捕來的魚蝦吞進胃裡消化,回到巢後再張開大嘴,將半消化的魚蝦反芻給幼鳥吃。約40天左右就和親鳥長得一樣大。此外必須提防,同樣在這裡繁殖哺育下一代的黑尾鷗的突襲。幼鳥的存活率只有30%。

 

P.S. 有些鳥類剛出生的雛鳥和母鳥的菜單是一樣的,未睜眼小小身軀也可以直接將昆蟲或蜻蜓或蜜蜂整隻生吞。

例如:金門候鳥-栗喉蜂虎

 

有一篇記錄,2010年5月下旬,在中國東北遼寧省外海的一座無人小島上,選擇了一處足足有四十多公尺高的峭壁上築巢以蹲立產卵,這一巢的卵總共有三顆(一般4-6顆),公鳥會在一旁守護,經過了大約23-25天的孵卵期,經過三天眼睛才會睜開,為了保持鳥巢的清潔,公鳥會趕快把蛋殼扔到巢外的海裡,並用自己的羽翼和體溫幫雛鳥把身體弄乾。

 

P.S. 有些母鳥類會把蛋殼咬碎吞食補充鈣質營養。

例如:金門候鳥-栗喉蜂虎

 

 

Knowledge 

 

Black-faced Spoonbill profile

 

Full length:74 ~ 85 cm
Standing height:50 ~ 60 cm
Weight:About 1 ~ 2 kg
Digit:four (Semipalmate)
The degree of protection:International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources announced as endangered species.

 

The growth of Black-faced Spoonbills:

 

The beak of a newborn black-faced Spoonbill is pink. Black-faced Spoonbills will swallow the caught fishes and shrimps into their stomach for digestion which are different from others birds feed directly. Afterward, back to the nest Black-faced Spoonbills open the mouth rumination the half-digested fish and shrimps for the fledges. Fledges will grow up like their parents about 40 days, however, their viability just 30%. Besides, they must watch their backs that are ambushed by Black-tailed gulls, which are also live in the same place and nurture their next generation.

 

P.S. Some newborn birds have the same menu as their mothers. Their small bodies without opening the eyes can directly swallow whole insects or dragonflies or bees.
For instance, the migrant bird of Kinmen - Blue-tailed bee-eater.

 

The birds choose a crag where is height over 40 feet to nest site for laying their eggs by squat in a record at an uninhabited island of the offshore of Liaoning Province, Northeast China in late May 2010. This nest had 3 eggs (Generally have 4~6 eggs) and the male bird protected on the site. Through about 23 ~ 25 days of the incubation period, then the eyes will be opened after 3 more days. Throwing the eggs shell into the sea as soon by the male bird for keeping the nest clean, moreover, has helped the newborn birds to dry their bodies by his feathers and temperature.


P.S. Some female birds will chew and eat the eggs shell for supplying calcium nutrition.
For instance, the migrant bird of Kinmen - Blue-tailed bee-eater.

 

   

黑面琵鷺的羽毛狀態,有三種情況:

 

狀況1:
黑面琵鷺繁殖期(每年一月底至三月間)頭部呈現爆炸頭和胸頸部有金黃的羽色,大約10天後牠們就會交配產卵。

 

狀況2:
當黑面琵鷺長出金黃色繁殖羽,就是準備向臺灣告別的時候飛往北方。

 

狀況3:
受到驚嚇和生氣的黑面琵鷺頭上羽毛呈現爆炸狀。

 

【最新消息】

 

​[今天的故事主角是黑面琵鷺

 

黑面琵鷺的天敵,大致分為兩大因素:


一、自然:大型的鷗鳥(如:黑脊鷗)、肉毒桿菌、野狗、 天候及潮汐的漲退。

二、人為:採蚵婦人、遊客、鞭炮聲、飛機聲。

 

黑面琵鷺的覓食行為:

 

黑面琵鷺屬於群體覓食,以河口淺灘、溼地、廢棄魚塭中的魚蝦類為食,主要食物包括:魚蝦類、彈塗魚、鰻魚還有青蛙,然而牠們也吃些植物性食物,例如:藻類及植物性種子等,甚至還有昆蟲。此外,招潮蟹、二枚貝、水草……等只是牠們的點心。

每隻黑面琵鷺嘴喙上的紋路都不一樣, 就像是人類的指紋一樣布滿了感覺神經,牠會將嘴喙伸入水中左右掃動,靠觸覺捕食。

黑面琵鷺會和其他鳥兒共棲,尤其是大白鷺,一有風吹草動,黑面琵鷺就會跟著大白鷺驚飛而起。活動以黃昏和夜間為主,而白天多彎著脖子、縮著頭並排停棲在安全適合的地點休息。魚塭和紅樹林,棲息地周圍有堤防和潮溝,可以阻擋天敵入侵。

 

南部友善的漁民

 

為了遠來候鳥,每年這一段時間,在魚塭裡的魚收成後,原本會把水放乾,讓太陽曝曬消毒魚塭,等來年再放水養殖。不過這幾年開始會刻意留下淺淺的水,讓小魚、小蝦可以生存在裡面。黑面琵鷺知道了,就這樣原因,牠們每年飛越千里而來,等來年3月的南風吹起,再依循代代相傳的飛行路線回到北方,這又將是黑面琵鷺族群新生命循環的旅行。

 

 

Here are 3 situations for the feathers condition of Black-faced Spoonbills:

 

Situations 1:
There have yellow feathers in the breast and Afro-hair in the head during the reproductive period. (From January to March in every year). They will be mating after about 10 days and laying eggs.


Situations 2:
It's time to say goodbye to Taiwan and fly to the North when black-faced Spoonbills have yellow breeding plumage.


Situations 3:
A frightened and angry Black-faced Spoonbill will become to have an Afro-hair.

 

【News】

 

​[Today our main story is about Black-faced Spoonbills.

 

Black-faced Spoonbills's natural enemies roughly have 2 factors:

 

A. Nature: large Laridaes (EX, European herring gull), Clostridium botulinum, stray dogs, weather, tides.

B. Human: Picking oyster women, tourists, the sound of firecrackers and aircrafts.

 

The foraging behavior of Black-faced Spoonbills:

 

Black-faced Spoonbills are a group foraging that eat fishes and shrimps in rivers mouth shoal, wetlands and abandoned fish farms. Major foods are fishes, shrimps, mudskippers, eels, frogs, moreover, they also eat some plants which are like algae, seeds and so on, even insects. In addition, there are some snacks such as fiddler crabs, bivalves, seaweeds, and so on. 

Every black-faced Spoonbill has different stripes of the beak which's like human fingerprints covered with sensory nerves. These birds use a tactile method of feeding, wading in the water and sweeping their beaks from side-to-side to detect prey.

Black-faced Spoonbills live with others birds, especially Great egrets, they will follow the Great egrets to fly away while ever anything moving. Their activities are during dusk and night, furthermore, they tuck the head and neck into their body to sleep side by side in a safe place in the day. The habitat has surrounding embankments and tidal ditches to block the nature enemies coming to.

 

Friendly fish-men in southern.

 

Fish men dry out the fish farms for exposure to the sun during this time every year after harvest until to next year being water filling again. However, these years they have intended to leave some water in fish farms, where have some little fishes and shrimps. However, these years they have intended to leave some water in fish farms, where have some little fishes and shrimps, for those migrant birds from faraway. For this reason, Black-faced Spoonbills knew it, so they fly over thousands of kilometers to come here every year. Until the next March when the south wind starts to blow, they follow the route of generations to fly back the north. This is travel for a life cycle of new Black-faced Spoonbills.

 

 

 

【最新消息】

 

​[今天故事的主角是黑面琵鷺

 

【News】

 

​[Today our main story is about Black-faced Spoonbills.

 

 

事情總有一體兩面

 

據推測數量原本至少有上萬隻。

2002年底於台灣發生的黑面琵鷺肉毒桿菌集體中毒事件,疑似吃下帶有肉毒桿菌病毒(C 型)的腐魚等食物。

2010年黑面琵鷺數量全球統計,全球普查結果, 黑面琵鷺只剩下2346隻。

 

2020年「黑面琵鷺全球同步普查」,香港觀鳥會昨發布全球普查結果。今年全球黑琵度冬族群數共4864隻,再創歷年新高,全球超過半數的黑面琵鷺於台灣度冬,數字也達新高共有2785隻。

 

台灣環境曾經大量傷害過牠們

 

因為知道生態的重要,善良漁民和政府相關單位在多年努力後,讓牠們又願意回來這塊土地,有機會欣賞候鳥群時,還是要記得不要隨意接觸或驚擾,遠觀對牠們才是友善,這樣每年牠們也願意不辭千里遠從2000多公里而來,停留在這個溫暖又友善的土地上。

 

P.S. 亞洲稱為為黑面琵鷺,但在美國的墨西哥灣與中南美洲等地也有全身粉紅色的玫瑰琵鷺。

 

 

Nothing exists in itself.

 

According to speculation, there are original over 10 thousand birds.
It happened the incident of Black-faced Spoonbills were poisoned by Clostridium botulinum in Taiwan at the end of 2002. They maybe ate dead fishes or food, which with Clostridium botulinum (C type).
Black-faced Spoonbills only have left 2346 in the whole global according to the result of The International Black-faced Spoonbill Census in the world in 2010.

 

The International Black-faced Spoonbill Census in 2020 was announced the result by HKBWS. The global of spend winter of black-faced Spoonbills is 4864 that was a new high for years. More than half of the global black-faced spoonbills spend the winter in Taiwan and the number was 2785, which was also a new high.

 

The environment of Taiwan also hurt Black-faced Spoonbills a lot once.

 

Let Black-faced Spoonbills will to go back this land after hard work by kindness fish-men and the authority concerned of the government because of knowing the importance of the ecology. When you have a chance to watch these migrant birds please remember do not to touch or disturb. Observing them from a distance is friendly to them so that they are also willing to travel thousands of miles away from more than 2,000 kilometers every year to stop in this warm, kindly land.


P.S. Black-faced Spoonbill is called by Asia, however, there are Roseate spoonbills which are covered with pink in the Gulf of Mexico of the USA and Central and South America.

 

 

2021/3/17

 

   

我們又發現了一段奇妙的四角關係,原來石虎可以救黑面琵鷺


人類-石虎-野狗-黑面琵鷺

 

人類保護石虎和黑面琵鷺,因為瀕臨絕種
人類餵養野狗,因為很可憐

 

一部分人保育石虎和黑面琵鷺

一部分人繼續餵食野狗

 

人類干涉之後讓整個生態互相矛盾著。

 

食物鏈中,石虎吃野狗,野狗吃黑面琵鷺

 

結論:

 

人類和野狗越來越多,石虎和黑面琵鷺越來越少瀕臨絕種

 

這樣的食物鏈和狼-鹿-森林關係很類似......

 

【故事】

 

友善的對待

 

 

狼-鹿-森林

 

狼和森林變少,人類和鹿變多

 

原因:

 

狼被大量撲殺,導致鹿太多,森林裡還來不及長大的樹苗被吃光,造成森林大幅度減少,然後人類開始吃鹿肉......

 

 

石虎-野狗-黑面琵鷺


石虎和黑面琵鷺變少,人類和野狗太多

 

原因:

 

石虎被大量撲殺,沒有石虎,森林野狗變多,野狗被人類餵食以外也吃候鳥,其中一種候鳥是瀕臨絕種的黑面琵鷺......
然後人類開始吃”椰果”嗎?

 

 

We discovered an interesting chain of relationships that leopard cats can save Black-faced Spoonbills.

 

Human - Leopard cat - Stray dog - Black-faced Spoonbill

 

Human protects Leopard Cats and Black-faced Spoonbills due to endangered species.
Human feeds stray dogs due to benevolence.

 

A part of humans protects Leopard Cats and Black-faced Spoonbills.
A part of humans continues feeding stray dogs.

 

The whole ecology is contradictory after human interference.

 

Within the food chain, Leopard cats eat Stray dogs, Stray dogs eat Black-faced spoonbills.

 

Consequently, 

 

More humans and Stray dos the fewer Leopard cats and Black-faced spoonbills that being endangered species.

 

Such as the food chain is similar to Wolf - Deer - Forest.

 

【Story】

 

 [Friendly treatment]

 

Wolf - Deer - Forest

 

The fewer Wolves and Forests the more Humans and Deers.

 

The Reason is

 

Many wolves have been killed leads to plenty of deers. Saplings that do not have enough time to grow up are eaten in forests which causes forests are been much decrease. The human starts to eat venison.

 

Leopard cat - Stray dog - Black-faced Spoonbill

 

Leopard cats and Black-faced Spoonbills reduce, but Human and Stray dogs increase.

 

The Reason is

 

Leopard cats have been killed so Stray dogs become more in forests without Leopard cats. Strays dogs eat migrant birds apart from are fed by humans which one of the species is endangered Black-faced Spoonbills.
So now, do humans start eating "coconut jelly"? [1]

 

The Mandarin pronunciation of "Stray dog" is like "coconut jelly".[1]

 

 

【待續 to be continue …】

2021/3/24